|Fandom has been fairly free of this sort of kookabooism, though Caucasian superiority was once defended by Jack Speer (!!)) in FAPA with such energy that his feud-opponents the Futurians tried to use it as grounds to eject him from the organization. Others, such as Paul Cox and Edwin Sigler in the early '50s and George Wetzel in the late '50s, have defended the idea of biological superiority of whites; a slightly larger number of fans have pointed out the social debilities of the negro as seen in practice. Generally the former argument, that whites are somehow better by nature, is met with slight respect if not with lively salvos of counterinvective from other fans -- certainly it rouses a good deal more aversion that advocating offbeat political, religious, or moral doctrines. Not many fans, however, go to the length George Young went when drafting the M3FS Constitution; disturbed by rumors of race prejudice in fandom, he began the document with the declaration: "Membership is open to all humans BEMs, and intelligent entities..."